- Melasma or chloasma is dark and irregularly shaped areas on the face. It affects 90% of pregnant women and occurs as a result of hormonal influences and birth control pills, but can also develop in men.
- Pigment spots such as age spots and freckles are caused by sun exposure. They are small, darkened patches of skin that appear mainly on body parts that are frequently sun-exposed.
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs when skin heals and leaves behind patches of darker discolouration. This may occur in acne, eczema and psoriasis.
- Sun exposure is the main contributing factor. Although it causes hyperpigmentation, it can also exacerbate dark spots by darkening freckles, age spots, melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation spots.